Intestinal fistula: Types, Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment

by admin

What is an intestinal fistula?

When there is an improper connection between sections of the intestine or when the intestine connects to another organ, it is called an intestinal fistula. Injuries, infections, inflammations, and postoperative complications are all potential causes of this bond.

Intestinal fistulas can damage a variety of organs and systems in the digestive tract. Examples of these types of fistulas include the bowel-to-bladder communication known as an enterovesical fistula and the skin-to-gut connection known as an enterocutaneous fistula.

When food, feces, and other physiological fluids seep through these connections, they can cause infections and other issues. The location of these diseases in your body can play a role in how you feel.

Due to the similarity between intestinal fistulas and other gastrointestinal conditions such inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and diverticulitis, accurate diagnosis of intestinal fistulas can be challenging. Therefore, an exact diagnosis calls for a comprehensive medical workup, including blood work and imaging investigations like CT scans or MRIs.

Types of intestinal fistulas

When the gut forms an improper connection or passageway to another organ or tissue, this condition is known as an intestinal fistula. Serious problems, including as infections, malnutrition, and dehydration, might result from these. Depending on the site and reason for the fistula, different forms of intestinal fistulas exist.

When the small intestine or colon makes contact with the skin, this is known as an enterocutaneous fistula. Complications during surgery, Crohn’s disease, radiation therapy for cancer, or trauma are all potential causes.

Enteroenteric fistula occurs when two sections of the intestine fuse together. This may occur as a result of postoperative adhesions, diverticular disease, or inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).

Entero-vesical Fistula is another type that arises between the bladder & intestines due to ulcers caused by tuberculosis or cancers like colorectal cancer seen in advanced stages.

Lastly Entero-vaginal Fistulas occur between vagina & large/small intestines mainly caused by injuries during childbirths leading to poor hygiene practices attracting bacteria into these areas causing infections

Each type requires specific treatment methods tailored to its underlying cause. Understanding them helps medical professionals determine proper diagnosis & treatment plans for individuals affected with this condition.

Causes of intestinal fistulas

Several different things can lead to intestinal fistulas. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) such as Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis is the leading culprit in most cases. Fistula development is possible due to intestinal wall inflammation and weakness under certain circumstances.

Intestinal fistulas can also be caused by abdominal surgery. This is because intestinal tissue can be easily harmed during surgical procedures, and aberrant connections between intestinal segments can be created.

Intestinal fistulas can also be caused by illnesses like diverticulitis or TB, as well as by trauma to the abdomen or radiation therapy for cancer treatment. The chance of developing an intestinal fistula may also be increased by the use of certain medications, such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and corticosteroids.

The origin of an intestinal fistula is not always obvious. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and previous abdominal surgery are both significant risk factors that enhance your chances of developing one.

If you have symptoms like chronic diarrhea, fever, stomach pain, or bloating combined with other digestive difficulties, you should consult a doctor right once to get a proper diagnosis and increase your chances of a successful treatment.

Symptoms of intestinal fistulas

The symptoms of intestinal fistulas can be quite varied and dependent on the type and location of the fistula. The primary symptom is the leakage of fecal matter or gas from an abnormal opening in the gastrointestinal tract, which can occur around the anus, near the navel or even within other organs.

Patients may experience constant abdominal pain, fever, nausea and vomiting due to fluid loss. Weight loss caused by malnutrition is a common occurrence due to lack of absorption capacity in intestines if it’s not treated early.

If a patient has an enterovesical fistula (an abnormal connection between an intestine and bladder), they may experience urinary tract infections (UTIs) accompanied with frequent urination patterns.

In addition to these physical symptoms, many patients report feeling emotionally drained while dealing with this condition since it leads to lifestyle changes such as dietary restrictions that further exacerbate their overall health situation.

It’s important that anyone experiencing any combination of these symptoms should seek medical attention immediately before complications arise.

Diagnosis of intestinal fistulas

The signs of an intestinal fistula are not usually obvious, making diagnosis difficult. The first thing you do is get a full medical history and physical on the patient. Imaging tests like CT scans or MRIs may also be performed in addition to the usual blood tests and stool samples.

Small bowel fistulas can be detected with a barium X-ray or upper endoscopy, and rectal fistulas with an anoscopy or sigmoidoscopy. The fistula’s precise site can also be determined by a contrast dye test called a fistulogram.

The diagnosis and treatment of some conditions may require exploratory surgery. Patients with intestinal fistulas need an accurate diagnosis to determine an appropriate treatment plan.

If you have odd digestive symptoms including diarrhea, abdominal pain, fever, or a change in bowel movements that lasts more than a few days, you should consult a doctor. The likelihood of a positive treatment outcome and the likelihood of subsequent complications due to intestinal fistulas are both increased by early diagnosis.

Treatment of intestinal fistulas

The severity, location, and etiology of an intestinal fistula all play a role in determining the best course of treatment. Tissue injury may necessitate surgical intervention to either repair or remove.

Medication for pain and inflammation, nutritional support to stop malnutrition and dehydration from fluid leaks via the fistula tract—these are all examples of conservative treatments.

When dealing with drainage from an intestinal fistula, specialized dressings or pouches may be employed. Patients who are either not good surgical candidates or who are awaiting definitive surgical care can benefit greatly from these methods.

When less invasive treatments have failed, surgery may be the only option left. Factors such as the fistula’s location and size will determine the specific operation that is carried out.

Surgery aims at closing off or redirecting the abnormal connection between organs that caused it while preserving organ function if possible. Post-operative care includes monitoring for complications such as infections and ensuring adequate nutrition intake until normal bowel function resumes.

It is important to note that prompt diagnosis and early intervention significantly improve outcomes associated with intestinal fistulas.

Prevention of intestinal fistulas

Intestinal fistulas can be avoided if proper digestive hygiene is practiced. Keeping to a healthy diet and way of life is a crucial preventative measure. Fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lean proteins are all essential parts of a healthy diet.

Avoiding infections that cause intestinal inflammation is another important step in preventing intestinal fistulas. In order to lessen the likelihood of contracting an illness, it is important to maintain excellent hygiene and cook food thoroughly.

Effective management of preexisting medical problems that raise the risk of developing an intestinal fistula is also crucial. Cancer radiation therapy, Crohn’s disease, diverticulitis, and ulcerative colitis are all examples.

Intestinal fistula symptoms, such as abdominal pain or chronic diarrhea, require immediate medical attention. Complications from this disease can be avoided with early diagnosis and treatment.

Intestinal fistulas are preventable and good digestive health can be maintained by adhering to these guidelines.

Complications of intestinal fistulas

Several issues related to intestinal fistulas have been shown to have serious negative effects on patients’ health and quality of life. The severity of these side effects depends on the nature and extent of the fistula.

Malnutrition is a common issue caused by the body’s inability to properly absorb nutrients. Weight loss, weakness, exhaustion, and anemia are all symptoms of malabsorption syndrome, which can be caused by a fistula in the small intestine.

Sepsis, an illness that spreads throughout the body and is brought on by germs that entered through the fistula, is another major problem. If not handled, this can lead to high body temperature, chills, a racing heart, confusion, low blood pressure, and even death.

Fistulas located near other organs such as bladder or vagina can also result in urine leakage or fecal incontinence which could negatively impact a person’s social life as well as their emotional well-being.

In some cases where medical treatment fails to treat intestinal fistulas effectively , surgical intervention may become necessary leading to further risks such as hemorrhage from surgery wounds, closure failure etc

Patients with intestinal fistulas must get medical help right once if they have any new or concerning symptoms. These potentially fatal consequences of this condition should always be a primary focus of treatment aimed at improving the patient’s overall health.


Intestinal fistulas are a medical issue that can be difficult to treat because to the pain and difficulties they can cause. However, many individuals are able to find symptom alleviation and escape the potentially serious implications of this disorder with correct diagnosis and treatment.

If you have any of the symptoms linked with an intestinal fistula, you should consult a doctor right away. Together, you and your doctor can figure out what treatment is best for your condition.

Protecting one’s digestive health and well-being can be achieved by an awareness of intestinal fistulas and their potential causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment choices, preventative tactics, and complications. Patients with intestinal fistulas can live normal, fulfilling lives with the right level of ongoing care and attention to their overall health.

Related Posts

Leave a Comment