Vulvar Cancer: Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment

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What is Vulvar Cancer?

Cancer of the vulvar region affects the female external genitalia. The labia majora or minora, clitoris, vaginal opening, or Bartholin’s glands are common sites of development. Skin and mucous membranes make up the vulva, and if left unchecked, they can generate aberrant cells that can lead to malignancies.

Vulvar malignancies can range from squamous cell carcinoma to adenocarcinoma to melanoma. In most cases, vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN), a precancerous alteration, leads to the development of squamous cell carcinoma, the most prevalent kind.

Symptoms of vulvar cancer include itching, burning sensation, pain during sex or urination, skin changes like thickening or discoloration on the vulva area and bleeding not related to menstruation.

The causes of this disease are not well known but certain factors may increase your risk including age (over 50), HPV infection history, smoking habits, chronic inflammation or other medical conditions affecting the immune system.

Diagnosis involves a pelvic exam with biopsy for confirmation followed by imaging tests to determine whether it has spread beyond its origin site.

Treatment options depend on several factors including stage at diagnosis but might include surgery to remove affected tissue along with chemotherapy or radiation therapy in more advanced cases.

Prognosis varies depending on several factors such as stage at diagnosis and treatment course but early detection improves survival rates significantly.

The different types of vulvar cancer

Vulvar cancer comes in a variety of forms, each with its own set of symptoms. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most prevalent kind, making up around 90% of all cases. Thin, flat cells that line the vulvar surface are the target of this particular form of cancer.

Adenocarcinoma is another type, and it forms in the glandular cells of the vulva. This malignancy is more likely to spread to surrounding lymph nodes than carcinoma of the squamous cells.

The vulvar manifestation of a rare kind of cancer called verrucous carcinoma looks like a wart. Although this form of cancer progresses slowly and metastasizes to other organs quite rarely, it can nonetheless cause considerable discomfort and call for treatment.

Extremely infrequent but potentially fatal, melanoma can also develop on the vulva. It typically appears on the skin as a mole or black patch of erratic shape.

Keep in mind that the key to successfully treating any form of vulvar cancer is early detection and diagnosis. Make an appointment with your doctor as soon as possible if you notice any changes in your genital area, such as itching or uncomfortable lumps.

Symptoms of vulvar cancer

Vulvar cancer symptoms can vary from woman to woman, but there are some universal red flags to watch out for. Vulvar itching and soreness are the most prevalent symptoms, and they can sometimes remain even after being treated with ointments and creams.

A lump or bump on the vulva that may have an irregular shape and color can also be a sign of vulvar cancer. This lump can grow rapidly over time and may become painful if left untreated.

Another symptom to keep an eye out for is bleeding from the vagina not related to your menstrual cycle. This could include spotting between periods or after sex.

Changes in skin color, texture, or thickness around the vulva area can also indicate the presence of vulvar cancer. You might notice redness, whitish patches, flaky skin or warts-like growths.

Any discomfort during urination and bowel movements could be associated with advanced cases of this type of cancer spreading to nearby tissues such as urethra and anus.

Keep in mind that these signs do not always indicate vulvar cancer, but it’s always better to be safe than sorry, so if you notice any changes in how your body functions down there, make an appointment with your doctor.

Causes of vulvar cancer

While researchers have yet to pinpoint a single cause for vulvar cancer, they have identified several characteristics that can raise a person’s risk of developing the disease. Age is an important factor in the development of vulvar cancer. Women aged 60 and up make up the bulk of the condition’s patient population.

Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is another risk factor for the development of vulvar cancer. The human papillomavirus (HPV) is a sexually transmitted virus that has been linked to the development of cervical cancer and other genital malignancies. Vulvar cancer is more likely to develop in women who have a compromised immune system, such as those who have HIV/AIDS or who have undergone an organ transplant.

Radiation therapy to the pelvic region is another possible cause, along with smoking, prolonged tampon usage, lichen sclerosus, and squamous cell hyperplasia.

Even though you have several risk factors for vulvar cancer, that does not guarantee that you will get the disease. However, gynecological exams and other screening tests can help discover any abnormalities in their earliest stages, so it’s important to know your risks.

How is vulvar cancer diagnosed?

In most cases, a physical examination is the first step in diagnosing vulvar cancer. A speculum is used to look within the vagina, and the doctor may use a colposcope to look more carefully at anything that looks off.

If the doctor notices anything out of the ordinary during the physical examination, he or she will order a biopsy. A tissue sample is taken from the afflicted area and sent for testing.

Imaging tests like CT scans, MRIs, and PET scans may also be performed to ascertain the stage of the cancer and whether or not it has spread.

Women should not delay in getting medical help if they feel symptoms like discomfort, itching, or bleeding in the genital area. Treatment outcomes and survival rates can be greatly enhanced via early identification.
Diagnosing vulvar cancer requires careful examination by qualified doctors followed by biopsy procedures and imaging tests. It’s important for women experiencing any unusual symptoms in their genital region not ignore them but seek prompt medical attention.

Treatment options for vulvar cancer

Vulvar cancer treatment choices vary by cancer kind, disease stage, and patient health status. Vulvar cancer in its early stages is usually curable with surgical removal. Lymph nodes in the groin area and/or the afflicted tissue may need to be removed.

Radiation therapy is an alternative to surgery when the latter is not an option. High-powered beams are used to destroy cancer cells. Radiation therapy can be made more effective when combined with chemotherapy.

Systemic treatments, such as immunotherapy or targeted therapy, may be utilized for advanced stages of vulvar cancer that have spread to other organs. These therapies are effective because they take aim at individual chemicals that contribute to tumor development and metastasis.

Vulvar cancer sufferers should talk to their doctors about their options and choose a course of therapy that best suits their requirements and preferences. After therapy, it’s important to schedule regular checkups to look for relapse.

Prognosis for Vulvar Cancer

Detection time and cancer stage are two of the most important elements in determining a prognosis for vulvar cancer. Vulvar cancer has an excellent cure rate if detected at an early stage. If caught at a later stage or after it has spread, however, the prognosis may be less optimistic.

If the cancer has gone beyond the vulva, the prognosis changes significantly. Surgical removal may be effective in curing it if it has not spread and is localized to one area of the vulva.

Another factor that can affect prognosis is age at diagnosis. Older women with vulvar cancer tend to have a worse outcome than younger women due to weaker immune systems and other health concerns.

Receiving prompt medical attention and following through with treatment plans are crucial in improving your chances of recovery from vulvar cancer. It’s important for women to stay vigilant about any changes they experience in their genital area and seek medical care as soon as possible if something seems abnormal.

Prevention of Vulvar Cancer

There are a number of things that women can do to lower their risk of developing vulvar cancer. Maintaining a high standard of personal cleanliness is crucial. Keeping your genital area clean and dry is essential for staying healthy and warding off diseases like cancer.

Safe sexual behavior is an additional defense mechanism against vulvar cancer. Vulvar cancer risk is increased by sexually transmitted infections (STIs), which can be avoided by using condoms during sexual activity.

If they haven’t already, ladies should likewise stop smoking. The immune system is weakened by smoking, making it more difficult for the body to fight off illnesses like human papillomavirus (HPV), a major cause of cervical cancer.

Preventing vulvar cancer may also be aided by keeping a healthy weight through exercise and a balanced diet rich in fruits and vegetables. Certain malignancies, such as those of the breast, ovary, uterus, colon, rectal, and endometrium, have been associated to being overweight or obese.

The risk of developing vulvar cancer can be lowered by adhering to standard health and hygiene habits, utilizing protection during sexual activity, giving up smoking, and keeping a healthy weight through food and exercise.


In conclusion, vulvar cancer is an extremely uncommon malignancy of the female external genitalia. Several things, including human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and smoking, can bring it on. Changes in skin color, itching, discomfort, and bleeding are just few of the possible symptoms.

In order to improve prognosis and survival rates, early detection and treatment are essential. Depending on the stage of cancer, surgical removal of the tumor, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy may be recommended.

Examinations by a gynecologist and other screening procedures should be routinely performed on all women. You can lower your chance of vulvar cancer by practicing safe sexual habits and keeping up with your regular hygiene routine.

You should visit a doctor right away if you develop any persistent symptoms or if you see any changes in your genital area. Keep in mind that the best way to avoid illness and preserve your health is to take an active role in managing it.

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